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2017年1月21日亚太新SAT写作考情解析来啦

2017/02/10 16:17:43编辑:jsy

河北培训网小编分享2017年1月21日亚太新SAT写作考情解析。 


2017年亚太SAT首考写作题来源于《华尔街日报》,全文共计856字,于2011年6月6日发表。


This article originally appeared in The Wall Street Journal. By Laura W. Bush


文章作者为美国第43任总统乔治·沃克·布什的第一夫人劳拉·威尔士·布什,文章所探讨的话题为环保类,与《新SAT官方指南》中第一套试题中的写作话题类似,作者所持观点都是呼吁美国民众加强野生原始生态环境的保护。


整个文章在阅读理解上并不难,词汇和句式都较为简单;从写作手法上来看,原文作者主要使用了历史事实、个人经历、第一人称复数、数据、举例、煽情等手法来支撑自己的观点,而作者的第一夫人身份也为其论点的说服力增添了不少光彩。


下面我们就一起来逐句逐段的看看如何深度分析这篇文章。


1、

Our first national park was named not after a mountain or forest but for a mighty river: Yellowstone. For centuries the worlds waters have connected us. Explorers, traders, scientists and fishermen have traveled our oceans and rivers in search of new resources and a greater understanding of the world. This Wednesday, as we mark World Oceans Day, we must intensify our efforts to better understand, manage and conserve our waters and marine habitats if they are to remain a vibrant source of life for future generations.

参考译文:我们的国家公园并非以山脉或森林命名,而以黄石河这条伟大的河流命名。几个世纪以来,我们因世界上的各大水域而联系在一起。为了寻找更好的资源,为了更好的理解这个世界,探险家、商人、科学家和渔夫一直在海洋和河流上航行。本周三,当我们纪念世界海洋日的同时,如果要为我们的下一代留下一笔充满活力的生命之源,我们必须加对强对水域和海洋栖息地的理解,管理和保护。


原文解析

原文作者 Laura W. Bush 在文章开头提及了美国第一个国家公园命名的由来,并介绍世界水域的作用,通过这些历史事实引出了本文要探讨的话题:海洋自然的保护和管理。紧接着,作者借用最近的世界海洋日来增强本文话题与个人的关系,增强读者对文章要讨论的话题的关注。段尾,作者采用第一人称复数的写作手法,开门见山地提出了本文的中心思想:世界水域和海洋栖息地的保护已迫在眉睫。


写作手法

historical fact(历史事实)、personal connection(个人联系)、first person plural “we”/“our”( 第一人称复数)


高分表达
1) Laura W. Bush opens with hard historical facts…thus effectively focusing the audiences` on the issue she plans to address.

2) Laura W. Bush starts with an appeal to the entire nation to stress the collective responsibility, using the all-inclusive first person plural “we”, “our”.


2、

Great progress has been made in protecting our environment over the past several decades, buttoo little of that progress addresses 70% of the worlds surface—our oceans. Less than one-half of 1% of the worlds oceans are protected in ways that will ensure they stay wild. Too often overharvesting depletes what should be a lasting bounty of fish. In some parts of the oceans today up to 90% of large fish are gone from natural ecosystems.

参考译文:过去几十年,我们在环保方面取得了巨大进步,但是占地球表面积70%的海洋的保护却几无进展。地球上只有不到0.5%的海洋得到了保护,使其能够保持野生状态。过渡捕捞正在使得丰富的鱼类资源日益枯竭。在现今的一些海洋中,多达90%的大型鱼种已经从自然生态系统中消失。


原文解析

紧接着,作者采用让步、列举数字和对比的写作手法向读者展示了一个严峻的事实:虽然目前在环保方面取得了巨大的进展,但是在对于占全球面积大部分的海洋的保护上几乎毫无进展。不仅保护力度不够,而且人类还在向海洋过渡索取,导致了大量鱼类的灭绝。通过这些写作手法,让读者意识到了海洋栖息地保护的刻不容缓。


写作手法

concession(让步)、numbers(数据)、contrast(对比)


高分表达

1)In an effort to show …Laura W. Bush throws out numbers……thus effectively convincing her readers that there is a need for …

2)Mrs. Bush contrasts the “great progress” with “little of that progress” to intensify our sense of urgency to protect…


3、

Our oceans are also where much of our trash and pollution end up. Plastics and other pollutants difficult to break down are killing fish, turtles and birds. Currents in the Pacific have created a plastic garbage dump twice the size of Texas. A few years ago, I visited Midway Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and was shocked to find debris killing birds that could not distinguish between plastic refuse and squid.

参考译文:我们的海洋也成了生活垃圾和污染的“回收站”。难以分解的塑料和其它污染物正在杀害鱼类、海龟和鸟类。因太平洋上洋流而形成的塑料垃圾对的规模是德克萨斯州面积的两倍。几年前,我参观了位于太平洋中部的中途岛,当我发现鸟类尸体残骸隐没在塑料废物和乌贼中难以辨认。


原文解析

为了进一步的说明海洋栖息地保护的重要性,作者Laura W. Bush以塑料废弃物对海洋生态的破坏性为例,描述了由于人类对海洋生态保护的忽视,导致海洋成为了塑料垃圾的最终“回收站”,太平洋上的塑料垃圾堆出了两个德克萨斯的面积的事实。同时作者以本人在太平洋中途岛上的所见所闻,详细生动地说明了这一事实对海鸟的危害。作者的个人经历和形象化描述,再一次唤起了读者心中的良知,有力的说明了保护海洋生态的重要性。


写作手法

exemplification(举例子)、personal anecdote(个人经历)、imagery(形象化描述)

高分表达

1) She makes use of her personal experience of her visit to the Midway Island to construct a sentimental common ground for readers to coincide with her claims.

2) This use of language and imagery is powerful because it demonstrates the devastating effect the plastic garbage on marine habitats.

4、

We are at risk of permanently losing vital marine resources and harming our quality of life. Overfishing and degrading our ocean waters damages the habitats needed to sustain diverse marine populations. Perhaps the most vital function our oceans serve is that of climate regulator—they produce oxygen, reduce pollution, and remove carbon dioxide. If we dont protect our oceans, we could witness the destruction of some of the worlds most beautiful and important natural resources.

参考译文:我们现在冒着永久性地失去重要的海洋资源和损害生活质量的风险。过渡捕鱼和减少海水将会破坏维持海洋种群多样性的栖息地。也许海洋最重要的功能是扮演气候调节器——它们生产氧气、减少污染和除去二氧化碳。如果我们不保护我们的海洋,也许我们会眼睁睁地看着世界上某些最漂亮、最重要的自然资源遭到破坏。


原文解析

作者Laura W. Bush严肃地指出,如果我们不对海洋生态采取保护措施,如果我们继续过渡开采海洋资源,我们就有可能永久性地失去最珍贵的海洋资源。通过使用permanently losing, harming, damage等表示消极意义的词汇,作者向读者描绘了一幅消极的画面,从而激发读者保护海洋生态资源的意识。


写作手法

first person plural “we”/“our”( 第一人称复数)、Word choice(选词)


高分表达

The author uses the negative words such as “permanently losing”, “harming”, “damage” to highlight this problem, words such as these have a rather negative connotation and immediately allow the reader to understand the need to stop “overfishing and degrading our ocean waters.”


5、

Fortunately, Yellowstone offers a blueprint for protecting our oceans. President Ulysses S. Grant created Yellowstone National Park in 1872 at a time when large wild areas on the frontier were at risk. The founding of Yellowstone sparked a 50-year period during which many of the national parks we enjoy today were created. Our country began to see the value of setting aside large territories that would remain wild forever. Our national parks play an outsized role in maintaining healthy and diverse wildlife populations far beyond their boundaries. Many of the elk, deer and wolves seen throughout Western states trace their lineage to populations in Yellowstone.

参考译文:幸运的是,黄石公园为海洋保护提供了一张蓝图。尤利西斯·格兰特总统于1872年建立了黄石国家公园,当时边境的大型野生区域都面临着危险。黄石公园建立带来的鼓舞持续了50年,现在所见的大部分国家公园都是在这一时期建立的。我们的国家现在开始看到了划出大块领土永久地保留其野生状态的价值所在。我们的国家公园在维持健全而又多样的野生种群方面发挥着极其重要的作用,远远超出了其原有的边界。许多在西部州所见的麋鹿、鹿和狼都可以在黄石公园找到其后代。


原文解析

作者并未一直借用消极画面来博得读者对海洋保护的同情,在第五段开首,Laura W. Bush使用了Fortunately一词,使得整个文章的感情色彩发生了转移,由消极转为积极。作者在本段例举了大量的历史事实来说明我们在海洋保护上所做的努力,以及国民保护意识的日益提升。当读者读到此处时,不免会心生几丝安慰,这大大增强了读者保护海洋生态环境的信心。


写作手法

emotional turns(情感转移)、historical facts(历史事实)、first person plural “we”/“our”( 第一人称复数)


高分表达

In the fifth paragraph, the passage takes on a more hopeful turn when the author shifts to mention that Yellowstone National Park and several other parks were created to conserve, restore the wild areas.


6、

In the early 1970s, the U.S. established a modest program to conserve some of its most important marine areas, called the National Marine Sanctuary System. In June 2006 and again in January 2009, the U.S. expanded the concept of parkland and wilderness preserves in the sea when President Bush designated four marine national monuments in the Pacific Ocean.

参考译文:20世纪七十年代早期,美国建立了一个名叫国家海洋自然保护区体系的小项目,旨在保护一些最重要的海洋区域。在2006年6月和2009年1月,布什总统在太平洋指定了4块国家海洋保护区,进一步扩大了公用场地和原生态保护概念。


原文解析

作者继续列举了继1872年黄石公园建立后,美国在海洋自然保护上取得重大进展的几个关键时间节点。以此向读者说明美国从未停止过海洋生态保护工作的步伐。


写作手法

key date(重要历史事件节点)


高分表达

Here she cites key dates in the history of the Wildlife conservation, including her husband’s role, to demonstrate that Americans have never stopped protecting marine habitats.


7、

The first of these, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, encompasses a 100-mile wide area of nearly pristine habitat northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, and was named a Unesco World Heritage site in 2010. A second area, the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, includes the worlds deepest canyon and is home to some of the oldest and most resilient forms of life on the planet. The other two monuments are the Pacific Remote Islands dispersed throughout the Pacific Ocean and the Rose Atoll in American Samoa.

参考译文:第一块帕帕哈瑙莫夸基亚国家海洋保护区包含了火奴鲁鲁西北、夏威夷在内的100英里宽的几乎原始的栖息地,并在2010年被提名为联合国科教文组织世界遗产保护区。第二块马里亚纳海沟国家海洋保护区包含了世界上最深的峡谷,是这个星球上某些最古老、最有活力生命形态的发源地。其它两块分别是散布在太平洋上的太平洋偏远岛屿保护区和美国萨摩亚罗斯环礁海洋保护区。


原文解析

作为美国第43任总统乔治·沃克·布什的第一夫人,Laura W. Bush在本段具体列举了丈夫任期内所建立的四个国家海洋保护区,从而增强了自己的可信读,有力支撑了美国政府一直在重视和保护海洋栖息地这一论点。


写作手法

exemplification(例证)


高分表达

By highlighting the hard, cold fact that…Laura W. Bush successfully provides a baseline for readers to find credence with her claims.


8、

These four monuments cover more than 330,000 square miles and add up to the largest fully protected marine area in the world, larger than all of our national parks and wildlife refuges combined. They support vast numbers of fish, breathtakingly beautiful coral habitat, and a remarkable abundance of sharks—often seen as markers of an ecosystems health.

参考译文:这四块保护区总面积达330,000平方英里,合计为世界上最 大的受完全保护的海洋区域,比所有的国家公园和野生动物保护区合起来还要大。它们供养着大量的鱼、美到让人窒息的珊瑚栖息地、丰盈的鲨鱼群——这往往被看作是生态系统健康的标志。


原文解析

作者不仅列出了四个海洋保护区,还通过举数字,做对比以及通过形象化的描述,来向读者展示这些海洋保护区的面积之广,作用之大。


写作手法

number(数据)、contrast(对比)、diction(措辞)


高分表达

The descriptive language here is especially strong, providing a representation for the environmental support that these four monuments provide.


9、

These monuments will remain open to shipping and other uses that will allow the economies and cultures of nearby American territories to prosper. But they will also remain a wild resource, a placewhere scientists can make new discoveries and where a variety of species can thrive. The U.S. was able to protect these areas because they fall within the Exclusive Economic Zone that surrounds our territories, and because the U.S. provides the means to manage them.

参考译文:这些保护区仍会向航运业以及能够促进附近领土的经济和文化欣欣向荣的其它利用开放。但同时它们也是也是一种野生资源,科学家们可以在此探索新发现,各种物种可以繁衍生息。美国得以保护这些区域,是因为它们是环绕我们疆土的专属经济区,因为美国提供了管理它们的途径。


原文解析

本段作者采用重复的写作手法,进一步说明了这些国家海洋保护区的经济、文化价值,以及其同时作为资源保护区给人们带来的科考和生态价值。在本段结尾,作者同样采用重复的手法,告诉读者美国有能力保护这些野生区域。


写作手法

repetition(重复)


高分表达

She uses the rhetorical device of repetition, two times repeating “remain”, “where”, “because” to heighten the audience’s feeling of confidence and encourages them to pursue continuing effort in protecting marine treasures.


10、

America is not alone in its efforts to preserve marine treasures. Australia has expanded its protection of parts of the Great Barrier Reef and the United Kingdom announced the designation of the Chagos Islands Marine Reserve in 2010. Dedicated conservation organizations, such as thePew Environment Group, are sounding the call to action. Their efforts have supported the designation of more than half the worlds protected marine waters.

参考译文:美国并非下力气保护海洋财富的唯一国家。澳大利亚扩大了它对大堡礁的保护和英国在2010年宣布指定了查戈斯群岛海洋保护区。像皮尤环境组织这样专注于环保的组织也在竭力为海洋保护奔走呼号。他们的努力促成了一半以上的世界海洋保护区得以指定。


原文解析

作者并没有把目光局限于美国,而是列举澳大利亚、英国和环保组织为保护海洋生态环境所做的努力,有力地证明了美国并不是唯一一个认识到海洋保护重要性,并为此付出实际行动的国家,海洋栖息地的保护已成了一个全球共识。


写作手法

exemplifications(举例子)


高分表达

The author states that countries like Australia, United Kingdom as well as conservation organizations have also been trying to preserve these vital resources, thus preparing the reader to follow her logic.


11、

In the coming years, protecting our oceans will be even more important. Nearly half of the worlds population lives within 60 miles of an ocean, and that percentage will rise as more people settle in coastal communities. Today there are few waters outside the reach of human exploitation. Our wild ocean frontiers are disappearing and, like we did with Yellowstone, it is up to us to conserve the most important wild areas that remain. Doing so will preserve something that is all too easy to destroy but impossible to replace: natural, undisturbed incubators of life.

参考译文:未来几年中,海洋保护将变得更加重要。将近一半的世界人口居住在离海岸60英里之内的地方,随着更多的人定居在沿海社区,这一比率将继续上升。现在,鲜有水域未被人类探索过。我们的野生海域边界正在消失,就像我们在黄石公园所做的,必须靠我们人类去保护现存的、最重要的野生区域。唯此,才能保护那些容易破坏而不易复得的东西:自然的、未被触及过的生命孵化器。


原文解析

在文章最后,作者再次通过第一人称复数的写作手法,向读者说明如今住在沿海地区的居民数量与日俱增,保护我们共同的海洋资源是我们共同的责任,海洋栖息地能否得到保护取决我们每个人的行动。


写作手法

appeal to emotion(煽情)、numbers(数据)、first person plural “we”/“our”( 第一人称复数)


高分表达

By choosing the collective voice “we”, “our”, the author is able to give her audience a sense of shared responsibility to conserve the wild areas.


本文由石家庄新航道英语培训学校陈克海老师编写。


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